Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Health Education on Utilization of Safe Motherhood Services among Women of Reproductive Age in Rivers-East Senatorial District

Goodluck Azuonwu, Comfort Emma Elechi, Wondikom Fortune Uloma

Asian Journal of Pregnancy and Childbirth, Page 23-33

Proper utilization of safe motherhood services helps to improve maternal well-being, enhances healthy pregnancy and safe delivery outcomes thereby reducing maternal mortality. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of health education on utilization of safe motherhood services among women of reproductive age in Rivers-East Senatorial District. The study adopted the quasi-experimental research design. The population for the study consisted of 567,861 women within the ages of 15-49 years. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select a sample size of 400 for the study. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire with a reliability index of 0.75. Data was analysed using mean, standard deviation and eta square statistics to answer the research questions while t-test was used to test the hypothesis.  The result of the study showed that health education had a significant effect on the utilization of safe motherhood service (eta= 0.39, p<0.05). The result of the study revealed that respondents in the intervention group had a mean score of 53.80, SD=10.26. It was concluded that health education had a significant large effect on the utilization of safe motherhood services among women in the study location. It was recommended amongst others that the State government in collaboration with the local government areas provide functional health education units in the health facilities and at community levels to make health education on maternal health a continuous activity in order to enhance the utilization of the services by women of reproductive age as a strategy to reduce maternal deaths. Also healthcare professionals should incorporate health education in their effort to promote the utilization of maternal healthcare services thereby improving the overall health and wellbeing of women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trend of Birth Spacing Impact on Physical Growth of Children under Age Five: An Analysis Based on Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys

Mithun Kumar Acharjee, Md. Nuruzzaman Forhad, Kumer Pial Das

Asian Journal of Pregnancy and Childbirth, Page 34-50

Physical growth and development of a young child is vital for quality of life, attaining good health, and national productivity. Physical growth and development during the first few years of life is influenced by many factors including birth spacing. This study was aimed to assess the impact of birth spacing on two indices of physical growth and development (stunting and underweight-also considered as malnutrition) of young children using the data from four of the most recent national-level demographic and health surveys in Bangladesh known as Bangladesh Demography and Health Surveys. Bivariate models have been employed to examine the impact of a number of background characteristics on stunting and underweight of children. These background characteristics include birth spacing, mother’s age, education, BMI, wealth index, place of residence, access to media, ANC visit, and breastfeeding duration. To understand the potential confounding impact of these background characteristics on the relationship between birth spacing and physical growth and development of young children, two logistic regression models are considered. The adjusted odds ratios were estimated which provide ideas of the dynamics between the predictors. Moreover, time series analysis has been employed to predict the stunting and underweight status of young children in Bangladesh. The analysis of physical growth and development provides researchers and policymakers valuable tools to understand the nutritional status of young children.  The analysis shows that variables such as mother’s education, mother’s age, wealth index, ANC visit, and breast feeding duration vastly influence both stunting and underweight.  Available resources should be offered to address these covariates.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship between Placenta Location with Occurrence of Pre-Eclampsia: A Single Centre Study in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

N. Dick, G. Bassey, E. W. Ugboma

Asian Journal of Pregnancy and Childbirth, Page 51-58

Background:Over the years, several screening tests have been developed, yet none is clinically useful for the prediction of pre-eclampsia. Currently, biochemical and biophysical markers of abnormal placentation are being studied as a link to the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the type of placentalocation determined by the use of ultrasound scan and occurrence of pre-eclampsia.

Methodology: The study was carried out at the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). Women admitted with the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia as well as those without pre-eclampsia at 28 to 42 weeks of gestation who satisfied the eligibility criteria, and consented for the study were enrolled. A structured proforma was used to obtain relevant information from the participants. Data was entered and analysed with SPSS Statistics for windows, version 20. Results were presented infrequency tables. Chi square and student ‘t’ test were used to respectively compare discrete and continuous variables with p value < 0.05 set as significant.

Results: The results showed that majority 41 (75%) of women with pre-eclampsia had the severe form of the disorder and majority 35 (65%) were referrals from peripheral health centres. Generally, the most common 42 (38.2%) placenta location was anterior placenta. The majority 26 (47.27%) of womenwithout pre-eclampsia had anterior placenta and the relationship was significant, p = 0.0049, (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.20 – 1.00). While the majority 18 (32.73%)of women with pre-eclampsia had posterior placenta, p = 0.1298, (OR 1.94; 95% CI: 0.81 – 4.63). Lateral placenta was observed in 9 (16.3%) of women with pre-eclampsia, and the association with pre-eclampsia was significant, p = 0.0017.

Conclusion: Ultrasound location of the placenta is relatively safe and cost effective. Lateral placenta may be another risk factor for pre-eclampsia and its detection may raise the index of suspicion for the risk of pre-eclampsia. This may enhance early and prompt institution of preventive measures in order to improve outcome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Pregnant Women’s Knowledge and Practice Regarding a Healthy Diet

Mona Abdelgadir Ahmed

Asian Journal of Pregnancy and Childbirth, Page 59-68

The period of pregnancy is one of the critical periods for the pregnant mother. during which the mother's nutrition and lifestyle greatly affect the health of the mother and the child and also the mother's nutrition during pregnancy affects the growth and potential development of the fetus and contributes to the maturity of a healthy child [1]. during pregnancy there are many superstitions throughout the world, especially in the developing countries like Sudan. Throughout the world pregnancy and lactation are considered vulnerable periods for both the mother and the child. this is Because of the nutritional requirements of the mother and the fetus [2]. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted based on a questionnaire that was distributed to expectant mothers in the outpatient clinics of Omdurman Maternity Hospital in Sudan, Khartoum State. We were able to distribute 120 questionnaires but only 80 of pregnant mothers agreed to fill it. we took in to account the psychological state of the pregnant woman, all of the participants were Sudanese, the ages ranged between more than 40 years less than 20 , most of them in first trimester , and all of them came to the hospital to follow up the pregnancy In the period from March 2019 to Aprille 2019 .

The Method: That was used is a descriptive analytical by means of a questionnaire distributed among pregnant women came to Omdurman Maternity Hospital in the outpatient clinics in the period from, March .2019 to Aprille 2019. the questionnaire was completed with all pregnant women who were satisfied to fill .the questionnaire, included the socio-demographic characteristics of the mother, as well as The information about the pregnant woman’s nutrition related concepts.

The Aim of this Study: The was to assess the pregnant knowledge about healthy diet during pregnancy.

The Specific Objectives: Thewas to evaluate nutritional concepts that among pregnant women attending outpatient clinics, Omdurman Maternity Hospital In the period from March. 2019 to Aprille 2019. This hospital was opened in 1957. and it is the largest obstetrics and gynecology hospital in Sudan . The hospital is considered one of the best hospitals in Africa. It is located in Omdurman, which is one of the largest cities in Sudan in terms of Sudanese density [3].

The Results: Excel was used to analyze the answers of 80 participants, and the result was that. Most of the participants (55%) were in the age (30-39) and in secondary education level (51.5%) And those who do not have a job were (73.75%). Also most of the pregnant women who participated in this study had a confirmed pregnancy between 4 to 6 times(46.25%) , And those who completed 24 weeks between 1 to 3 times were( 63.75%) , which is the highest percentage as the lowest number were women who completed their pregnancy for more than 24 weeks for more than 6 times. also most of the participants had abortion were (68.75%), also Most of the participants said that they know a healthy diet for pregnant women ( 77.5%), while some said they were not sure. and others said they did not know that (22.5%), most of the participants (53.75%) stated that healthy foods are more important for children than for mothers. In answering the beliefs about foods during pregnancy (43.75%) of the them said that they believe in some foods during pregnancy. Among the most widely believed foods were eggs (11.25%), hot spices (6.25%), fish, cold drinks and other foods (19.80%). And also (25%) of the participants reported that not receiving such advice. also (12.5%) of them receive advice from outside the health system . about (23,75%) of the participants were not aware of the folic acid important for pregnancy , And (23.75%) of them do not use it ,most of those who did not use it stated that the reason was economic . also most of pregnant women ( 45%) who participated in this questionnaire follow up with midwives followed by physician (23.5% ) , the rest (23.5%) are following the pregnancy with other parties .

Open Access Review Article

Facilitators and Barriers to Breastfeeding in Asian American Women: A Review of the Literature

Ratchanok Phonyiam, Diane C. Berry

Asian Journal of Pregnancy and Childbirth, Page 1-22

This review article summarizes the current literature on facilitators and barriers to breastfeeding in Asian American women and provides future research directions. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and PsycInfo databases were searched for original qualitative or quantitative studies published in English. Reviews and consensus statements were excluded. Findings were synthesized by configuration and a bottom-up approach to thematically formulate the findings. A vote-counting method was used to summarize the results across the studies selected. A total of eight studies were selected. The review included 222 Asian women living in the United States. Our review focused on three themes: (i) cultural and traditional practices that influence breastfeeding; (ii) facilitators to breastfeeding; and (iii) barriers to breastfeeding. This review highlighted several areas in need of further research in Asian American women who have an early cessation of breastfeeding and less access to breastfeeding support services. The differences in cultural beliefs among Asian women who have migrated from different countries indicated no singular belief system. A culturally sensitive and family-centered approach in addressing critical barriers and promoting key facilitators of breastfeeding in Asian American women is needed.