Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Malaria Infection among HIV Infected Pregnant Women Receiving Care at Public Health Facilities in Ondo State of Nigeria

T. A. Olusi, M. B. Adediran, M. O. Oniya

Asian Journal of Pregnancy and Childbirth, Page 1-7

Malaria and HIV are important challenging infections in Nigeria. Co-infections of this duo in pregnancy has been associated with various adverse pregnancy outcomes including anaemia, low birth weight, premature birth, maternal and neonatal death. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of malaria infection among HIV infected pregnant mothers reporting for routine antenatal checkup in two major state owned hospitals in Ondo city. The cross-sectional study conducted between May and September 2018 had 93 HIV infected pregnant women as participants. The overall prevalence rate of malaria was 52.6% and the highest rate was recorded among separated/divorced participants (83.3%). Malaria infection was found to be statistically significant in relative to CD4+ cell counts where malaria infection prevalence ranges from 22.2% to 71.4% ( χ2 =9.22, P=0.03). This study has found that the prevalence of malaria was high among HIV infected pregnant women in Ondo city and that factors such as gravidity, reported fever and residence do not vary significantly on the univariate analysis employed in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern and Socio-demographic Determinants of Gestational Age at Antenatal Booking at the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria: A Two-Year Review

P. A. Awoyesuku, D. A. MacPepple, N. J. Kwosah

Asian Journal of Pregnancy and Childbirth, Page 1-8

Background: Antenatal care is one of the pillars of the SAFE Motherhood Initiative aimed at preventing adverse pregnancy outcome. Early initiation provides an opportunity for optimum utilization of this care with improved maternal and fetal outcomes.

Objective: To determine the pattern and Socio-demographic determinants of gestational age at antenatal booking at the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH) over a two-year period.

Methodology: A retrospective review of hospital records of all pregnant women booked for antenatal care (ANC) at RSUTH in a two-year period, from 1ST May 2017 to 30TH April 2019, was carried out. Data on patients’ age, parity and educational level, and gestational age at booking were retrieved using structured pro-forma and analyzed using Epi Info Version 7. Test for significance using Chi-square was set at significant level of P<0.05.

Results: There were 3560 cases, with a mean age of 31.5±4.7 years and a mean gestational age at booking of 22.1±6.8 weeks. Majority of the women (53.9%) booked in the second trimester. Only about a quarter (26.5%) booked early, with 73.5% booking late. Majority of the women (62.2%) fall within the 30-39 age group, are Multiparous (65.3%) and had tertiary education (72.5%). There was no statistically significant relationship between their ages and gestational age at booking (χ2 = 3.372, p-value=0.761). However, parity (χ2 = 50.015, p-value=0.000) and educational qualification (χ2 = 18.358, p-value=0.001) were statistically significant.

Conclusion: The majority of ANC attendees booked late for antenatal care in this study, and only about a quarter booked early. There was a statistically significant difference in parity and educational status as determinants of gestational age at booking, with the nullipara and primary education group booking earlier.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Proportion of Failed Induction of Labour and Associated Factors among Women Undergoing Induction of Labour in Dessie Referral Hospital: Northeast Ethiopia a Cross-sectional Study

Tenagnework Dilnessa, Kibir Temesgen, Amare Workie

Asian Journal of Pregnancy and Childbirth, Page 1-13

Background:  There are several complications of pregnancy that confer significant ongoing risk to the mother or fetus. For these conditions, induction of labour is as an artificial termination of pregnancy utilized to decrease both maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The process of inducing labour is not always successful and sometimes fails to achieve a safe vaginal delivery.

Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on medical records of 319 registered women who undergo labour induction at Dessie referral hospital from January 01 to February 2017.  Systematic sampling techniques were used to select the samples. The data was cleaned, edited, coded, and entered into EPI INFO version 3.5 and exported and analyzed by SPSS with windows version 20.0. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression statistical model was used to identify factors associated with the outcome variable. Adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to see the strength of association.

Results: The proportion of failed induction of labour was 19.7 %. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that women live in a rural area [4.171(1.358-12.807)], primipara [AOR=1.72(1.67-4.415)] and women whose Bishop score is unfavourable [0.147(0.066-0.327)] were significantly associated with failed induction of labour.

Conclusion: The proportion of failed induction of labour was relatively high in the study area. Variables which increased the likelihood of failed induction were living rural area, primigravidity and unfavourable bishop score before induction of labour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stillbirths in Primary Level Hospitals in Sunyani, Ghana: A Retrospective Data Analysis

Paulina C. Appiah, Kingsley Arhin-Wiredu, Michael R. Adjei, Charles L. Noora, Janet V. Baafi, Timothy S. Letsa, Alfred Edwin Yawson

Asian Journal of Pregnancy and Childbirth, Page 1-8

Aims: To determine prevalence and factors influencing stillbirth among deliveries.

Study Design: A facility-based cross-sectional analytical study.

Place and Duration of Study: Sunyani Municipal and Seventh Day Adventist (SDA) Hospitals in Bono Region, Ghana from January, 2014 and December, 2015.  

Methodology: Two thousand and twelve deliveries were analyzed. Outcome variable was stillbirth, explanatory variables were the sociodemographic, obstetric and clinical characteristics. Logistic regression (bivariate and multivariate) analysis reporting odds ratio at 95% confidence interval were calculated to identify factors associated with stillbirth. 

Results Stillbirth rate was 15/1000 births.  Mean age of mothers was 28.2 ±5.9 years and majority (75.1%) were aged 20-34 years. Prevalence of stillbirth was higher among women with no formal education (2.1%). Odds of stillbirth decreased with additional antenatal care (ANC) visits; 2-3times ANC visits (AOR=0.16, 95% CI:0.06 - 0.48), ANC 4+ times (AOR=0.017, 95% CI: 0.006 - 0.052). Women who received 3+ doses of intermittent prophylactic treatment (IPT) for malaria had 68% reduction in odds of stillbirth compared with those who had one (AOR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.009-0.103). Women with haemoglobin greater than 11.0 g/dl were more than 70% less likely of stillbirth outcome (AOR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11-0.73).

Conclusion: High number of ANC visits, optimal maternal haemoglobin (>11.0 g/dl) and 3+ IPT are associated with lower risk of stillbirth among deliveries.  Premium should be placed on quality of ANC to suit the specific needs of pregnant women whiles encouraging more visits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Consumption of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Water Improved Fertility Parameters in Male Wistar Rats

Augustine I. Airaodion, John A. Ekenjoku, Kenneth O. Ngwogu, Ada C. Ngwogu

Asian Journal of Pregnancy and Childbirth, Page 1-7

Background: The need for fertility stimulation in men and women cannot be overemphasized especially when a marriage is childless in some communities in Nigeria. While chemical methods for fertility stimulation may have some side effects and are not readily available, remedy from natural sources can be used.

Aim: This present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of coconut water on fertility in male Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: Coconuts of about 8 months old were harvested from Apata area of Ibadan in Oyo State, Nigeria. The coconuts were dehusked, broken carefully and the liquid endosperm was collected and preserved in the refrigerator. Thirty male Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 200 g were used for the experiment. They were acclimatized for 7 days during which they were fed ad libitum with standard feed and drinking water. They were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each. Animals in groups A, B and C were administered normal saline for 10, 20 and 30 days respectively via oral route. Those in groups D, E and F were similarly treated (for 10, 20 and 30 days respectively via oral route) but with 3 mL of undiluted coconut water. At the end of treatment, the animals were sacrificed by the cervical dislocation. The internal organs were exposed. Testes and cauda epididymis were removed and kept in sterilized watched glass. Male fertility parameters were determined using standard methods.

Results: Coconut water caused increased sperm count and sperm motility while mortality and abnormality of spermatozoa decreased significantly after 10, 20 and 30 days of treatment respectively. However, coconut water had no significant difference on seminal pH at P<0.05.

Conclusion: The results of this present study showed that coconut water increased fertility in male Wistar rats. Men with fertility challenges are encouraged to consume coconut water as often as possible.