Original Research Article | Asian Journal of Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2019 March 23;2(1):1-7
Maternal Breastfeeding Attitudes: Pregnant Women and Factors Which Affect the Breastfeeding

Selma Sen, Arzu Kılıc

Introduction: This study was conducted for the purpose of determining the breastfeeding attitudes of pregnant women and factors which affect the breastfeeding.

Methods: This study is a cross-sectional and descriptive study. The study sample consisted of 152 pregnant monitored in obstetric clinics at a university hospital in Manisa. The study data were collected by using two forms “Pregnant Information Form” and “Breastfeeding Attrition Prediction Tool”.

Results: The mean age of pregnant women was 27.69±5.62 years. When the sub-scale score mean of the pregnant women are investigated, it has been determined that Positive Breastfeeding Attitudinal Scale (PBS) score averages 242.11±57.04, Negative Breastfeeding Attitudinal Scale (NBS) score averages 142.01 ± 52.07, Social and Professional Support Scale (SPS) score averages 209.49 ± 52.56  and Breastfeeding Control Scale (BFC) score averages 38.76 ± 6.78.

Conclusions: The results illustrated that with a university degree and from nuclear families and multipara and aged pregnant women had positive attitudes towards breastfeeding. It was also noted that multipara and aged pregnant women had higher control perceptions of breastfeeding.

Original Research Article | Asian Journal of Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2019 April 30;2(1):1-12
Multiple Antenatal Care Bookings among Pregnant Women in Urban and Rural Communities of Ebonyi State, Nigeria: A Mixed Method Study

Edmund Ndudi Ossai, Pearl Chizobam Eke, Pearl Adaoha Agu, Elizabeth Uzoamaka Nwonwu

Aims: To determine the factors influencing multiple antenatal care bookings among pregnant women in urban and rural communities of Ebonyi state, Nigeria.

Study Design: This was a community based cross-sectional comparative study design using a sequential mixed method exploratory approach.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in urban and rural communities of Ebonyi State, Nigeria between September and October 2017.

Methodology: A two stage sampling method was used to select 660 women who have been delivered of babies within one year preceding the study irrespective of place of antenatal care. Also the respondents were permanent residents of the selected communities for one year. Eight focus group discussions were conducted among women who delivered within one year preceding the study and those pregnant during the period of study. Twelve key informant interviews were also conducted among providers of antenatal care in health facilities in the selected communities. Chi square test of statistical significance and multivariate analysis using binary logistic regression were used in the analysis and level of statistical significance was determined by a p value of <0.05. QDA Miner Lite v2.0.6 was used in the analysis of qualitative data.

Results: The mean age of respondents were 29.6±6.2 and 28.6±5.1years in urban and rural communities respectively. A significantly higher proportion of respondents in urban area, 34.5% registered for antenatal care in more than one health facility when compared to those in rural, 25.8%. (p=0.014). The major reason for multiple antenatal care bookings in the urban was because of strike actions by health workers in the public health sector while in the rural, it was because of emergency which may occur during the period of pregnancy or labour. Predictor of multiple antenatal bookings among the respondents was the attainment of tertiary education. (A0R=1.7; 95%C1: 1.1-2.6).

Conclusion: More than a third of the respondents registered for antenatal care in more than one health facility. The reasons for this practice are a manifestation of the weaknesses of the health system and at a high cost to the women and the country especially as Nigeria bears the highest burden of maternal deaths globally. The Government of Nigeria should bring to an end the frequent industrial actions in the public health sector. There is also the need to train the health workers and enlighten the populace on referral system. These may serve as initial steps towards embracing quality maternal health services in Nigeria.


Original Research Article | Asian Journal of Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2019 May 8;2(1):1-9
Factors Associated with Access Barriers to Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immune Deficiency Virus Services in Private Hospitals in Enugu State, South East, Nigeria

Umeobieri Ancilla Kate, Aniwada Elias Chikee, O. Mbachu Chinyere, Onyebueke Anthony, S. Uzochukwu Benjamin

Aims: This study was to ascertain the barriers in PMTCT Services in private tertiary health facilities in Enugu state, South-east Nigeria

Study Design: This was a facility-based analytical cross-sectional study among HIV positive nursing mothers who were accessing PMTCT services.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was at Ante natal clinic and post natal Clinics of Annunciation and Mother of Christ health facilities in Enugu state. The study was between February and July 2015.

Methodology: Questionnaires were used. Chi-square test was used for association between socio-demographic variables and experience of any access barrier. Multivariate analysis in form of logistic regression was done to for determinants of experience of any access barrier.  Level of significance was determined at a p-value of ≤ 0.05

Results: Majority were aged 30-34 years 144(52.4%), attained secondary education 121(44.0%), were unemployed 108(39.3%), and had 1-2 babies 128(46.5%). The major barriers experienced were; cost of registration/transport 198(72.0%), Stigma and discrimination from friends/neighbours 123(44.7%) and being too busy with household chores 137(49.8%). There were statistically significant association between experience of barriers with educational level (χ2=8.572, p =0.036) and parity (χ2=6.451, p=0.040)

Conclusion: Almost all the study participants in this study experienced a form of barrier with major barriers. Parity and educational level influenced barriers to PMTCT care. There is need for educational empowerment and family planning for the desired goals of PMTCT services to be achieved.

Original Research Article | Asian Journal of Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2019 May 27;2(1):1-5
Malaria Parasitaemia and Some Iron Parameters of Pregnant Women in Rural Nigeria

E. C. Akwiwu, J. O. Akpotuzor, A. O. Okafor

Aims: This study aimed at investigating maternal malaria and its impact on red cell indices of pregnant women in rural Nigeria.

Study Design: Case-control study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in rural Cross River State of Nigeria between May and November, 2018.

Methodology: This study was carried out among consenting pregnant women at Akpet central, Biase Local Government Area of Cross River State. A total of three hundred and eighty pregnant women and three hundred and eighty non-pregnant women were enrolled. Blood samples were collected into ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid bottles and plain bottles for analysis of red cell indices by automation and to obtain serum for iron tests respectively. Serum iron and TIBC were analyzed by standard colorimetric methods while serum ferritin was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Malaria microcopy was carried out on stained thick and thin blood films.

Results: The red cell indices and iron levels of pregnant women were significantly lower (p≤ 0.05) compared to non-pregnant women. These parameters were also significantly lower (p≤ 0.05) among malaria-infected pregnant women compared to their counterparts who did not have malaria.

Conclusion: Malaria and anaemia remain important health challenges for pregnant women in rural communities of Nigeria. 

Original Research Article | Asian Journal of Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2019 June 3;2(1):1-10
Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Pregnant Women Attending Selected Health Centres in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Deborah Tolulope Esan, Ayodeji Akinwande Fasoro, Oluwaseun Adebimpe Anifowose, Elizabeth Funmilayo Ojo

Introduction: This study assessed birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) and its associated factors among pregnant woman attending selected health care facilities in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti state, Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional study design was employed. Two hundred and six pregnant women were randomly selected from four health care facilities. Data were analysed using descriptive, binary and multiple logistic regression analysis. The level of significance was set at P <0.05. Results: The overall prevalence of BP/CR was 70.6% (n = 125). About 149 (81%) already identified a place of delivery, 114 (62%) identified skilled birth attendant, and 160 (87%) saved money for delivery. However only 30 (16.3%) of the respondents made arrangement for blood donor in case of emergency. Religion, parity, and knowledge of at least two obstetric danger signs were significantly associated with the extent of BP/CR practice. Being a Christian (AOR = 6.15, 95% CI: 1.65 – 22.97) and having knowledge of at least two obstetric danger signs (AOR = 5.80, 95% CI: 1.81 – 18.56) were significant predictors of good BP/CR practices.

Conclusions: Health care providers should stress the importance of identifying blood donor in case of emergency and antenatal clinics should be goal - and client-oriented and time effective. BP/CR should be made an integral part of maternal and child health services as the occurrences of complications during the process of childbirth are unpredictable.