Oral Health Status of Pregnant Woman Versus Non-Pregnant Women of Childbearing Age (15-44 Years) in Lao PDR

Amphayvan Homsavath *

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Health Sciences, Laos, Military 103 Hospital, Vientiane, Laos.

Souksakhone Anouphonh

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Health Sciences, Laos, Military 103 Hospital, Vientiane, Laos.

Beltran-Aguilat Eugenio

Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, New York University, USA.

Viraseng Rajpho

Faculty of Medicine, University of Health Sciences, Laos.

Daungsavanh Phengmaneevong

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Health Sciences, Laos.

Vatsana Chanthamalinh

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Health Sciences, Laos.

Thongsavanh Vetsouvanh

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Health Sciences, Laos.

Phimfalee Sayaxang

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Health Sciences, Laos.

Souliyo Souvong

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Health Sciences, Laos.

Patay Vongsathien

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Health Sciences, Laos.

Chanvilay Soukhaserm

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Health Sciences, Laos.

Soulideth Inthakone

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Health Sciences, Laos.

Souksida Xaykhambanh

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Health Sciences, Laos.

Vimonh Thongterm

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Health Sciences, Laos.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Aim: this study was to identify an oral health status, utilization of dental services, and impacts of oral health on daily living among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Lao PDR.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, among 150 pregnant and 150 non-pregnant women age 15–44 years old attending 103 Military Hospital of Vientiane. The study consisted of an interview and oral examination. All participants were examined for the presence of decayed, filled and missing teeth (DMFT), using the criteria from WHO Oral Health Basic Methods, 5th edition. Periodontal status was examined pocket depth by using WHO probe with marks at 3.5 and 5.5 mm and bleeding on probing was assessed by using normative (clinical examination) and by self-reported approaches. Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) were used to measures perceptions of the social impacts of oral disorders on their well-being, the questionnaire was developed in English and used validated questions from other questionnaires. Then it was translated into Lao.

Results: A total number of 300 participants. The prevalence of dental caries among all participants was 75%. In both estimates. Pregnant women had a higher prevalence (76%) than non-pregnant women (73%), but the differences were not statistically different. The mean number of decayed, filled and missing teeth DMFT was 3.25. The mean number of untreated decayed teeth (DT) was 2.04. The mean DMFT and DT were statistically higher among pregnant women (p= 0.001). no difference prevalence of pocket depth between both group. However, pregnant women had higher bleeding on probe than non-pregnant women (P= 0.011), The mean OHIP-14 score was higher in non-pregnant (9.6±8.7) than in pregnant women (7.7±7.6). There was strong significant positive relationship between DMFT, periodontal, bleeding and total OHIP-14 in pregnant women on functional limitation and pain.

Conclusion: pregnant women were high risk and poor oral health than non-pregnant women. Dental treatment needs and prevention program for women planning to pregnant. During pregnancy, women’s oral hygiene education should be integrated into routine maternal care. It could also be of necessary step for the mothers to take responsibility for the oral health of their newborns.

Keywords: Pregnancy status, caries, periodontal diseases, OHIP-14


How to Cite

Homsavath, A., Anouphonh, S., Eugenio, B.-A., Rajpho, V., Phengmaneevong, D., Chanthamalinh, V., Vetsouvanh, T., Sayaxang, P., Souvong, S., Vongsathien, P., Soukhaserm, C., Inthakone, S., Xaykhambanh, S., & Thongterm, V. (2024). Oral Health Status of Pregnant Woman Versus Non-Pregnant Women of Childbearing Age (15-44 Years) in Lao PDR. Asian Journal of Pregnancy and Childbirth, 7(1), 101–109. Retrieved from https://journalajpcb.com/index.php/AJPCB/article/view/136

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Lao Statistics Bureau. Population 2019. Lao Statistics Bureau; 2021. Available:http://www.lsb.gov.la/en/home/.

World Bank. Urban Population (% of total population) – Lao PDR. The World Bank; 2021. Available:https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL.IN.ZS?locations=LA

Lao Statistics Bureau. Population by provinces. Lao Statistics Bureau; 2021. Available:https://laosis.lsb.gov.la/tblInfo/TblInfoList.do.

FAO. Country Gender Assessment of Agriculture and the Rural Sector in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO); 2018. Available:http://www.fao.org/3/CA0154EN/ca0154en.pdf.

Wu M, Chen SW, Jiang SY. Relationship between gingival inflammation and pregnancy. Mediators Inflammation; 2015. ID 623427.

Vanphanom Sychareun, Vathsana Somphet, Kongmany Chaleunvong, Visanou Hansana, Alongkone Phengsavanh, Sisouvanh Xayavong & Rebecca Popenoe . Perceptions and understandings of pregnancy, antenatal care and postpartum care among rural Lao women and their families. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2016;16, Article number: 245 (2016)

Centers for Disease control and prevention .CDC 24/7 pregnancy and oral health. Division of oral health, National center for chronic Disease prevention and Health promotion. Accessed On: March 18, 2022.

Hsiang-Hsi Honga, Yi-Heng Chenb, Po-Jen Chengc, Min-Yu Changd and Li-Lan Chuang. Risk factors associated with periodontal disease and its impact on quality of life among pregnant women. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2023;43(2):2264382. Available:https://doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2023.2264382

Slade GD. Derivation and validation of a short-form oral health impact profile. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1997; 25:284-290.

World Health Organization. Oral Health Surveys Basic Methods 5th Edition; 2013.

Eke PI, Dye BA, Wei L, et al. Self-reported measures for surveillance of periodontitis. J Dent Res.2013;92:1041-1047.

Rakchanok N, Amporn D, Yoshida Y, Harun-Or-Rashid M, Sakamoto J. Dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Nagoya J; Med 2010;72 43-50.

Patil S, Ranka R, Chaudhary M, Handde A, Sharma P. Prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant and nonpregnant women. J Datta Megha Inst Med Sci Univ. 2018;13:44-47.

Marianna Vogt, Antonio W Sallum, José G Cecatti and Sirlei S Morais. Factors associated with the prevalence of periodontal disease in low-risk pregnant women. Vogt et al. Reproductive Health. 2012;9:3 Available:http://www.reproductive-health-journal.com/content/9/1/3

Udijanto Tedjosasongko, Fridianty Anggraeni, Mok Li Wen, Satiti Kuntari. Prevalence of Caries and Periodontal Disease Among Indonesian Pregnant Women. Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada; 2019. DOI: 10.4034/pboci.2019.191.90

Shamsi M, Hidarnia A, Niknami S, Khorsandi M. the status of dental caries and some acting factors in a sample of Iranian women with pregnancy. World J Med Sci. 2013;9(4):190-7

Santhosh Kumar S, Tadakamala J, Tibedewal H, Duriswamy P, Kulkarni S. Factors influencing caries status and treatment needs among pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Udaipur city. India J clin Exp Dent. 2013;5(2):e72-6.

Moliner-Sanchez CA, Iranzo-Cortes JE, Almerich-Silla JM, Bellot-Arcis C, Ortola-Siscar JC,Montiel-Company JM, Almerich-Torrer T. Effect of per Capital Income on the Relationship between Periodontal Disease during pregnancy and the risk of preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight Newborn. Systematic Review abd Meta-Analysis . It. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2020;17:8015. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17218015.

Laine MA. Effect of pregnancy on periodontal and dental health. Acta Odontol Scand. 2002;60(5):257-264.

Margaret N Wandera, Ingunn M Engebretsen, Charles M Rwenyonyi, James Tumwine, Anne N. Periodontal status, tooth loss and self-reported periodontal problems effects on oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, in pregnant women in Uganda: a cross-sectional study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2009;7:89 DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-7-89

Ema Yunita Sari, Norkhafizah Saddki,* and Azizah Yusoff. Association between Perceived Oral Symptoms and Presence of Clinically Diagnosed Oral Diseases in a Sample of Pregnant Women in Malaysia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(19):7337.

Azofeifa A, Yeung LF, Alberson CJ, Eugenio Beltan-Aguilar ED. Oral Health conditions and dental visits among pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004. Prev Chronic Dis. 2014;11:140212.

Khalaf SA, Osman SR, Abbas AM, Ismail AMAM. Knowledge, attitude and practice of oral healthcare among pregnant women in Assiut, Egypt. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2018;5:89-900.

Juliana Schaia Rocha; Letícia Yumi Arima; Renata Iani Werneck; Samuel Jorge Moysés; Márcia Helena Baldani. Determinants of Dental Care Attendance during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review. Caries Res. 2018;52(1-2):139–152.

Haixia Lu, Wei Xu, May Chun Mei Wong, Tian-You Wei and Xi Ping Feng. Impact of periodontal conditions on the quality of life of pregnant women: A cross-sectional study. Accessed On:2015 May 28. DOI: 10.1186/s12955-015-0267-8